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2278
grepsedawk

This question attempts to collect the few pearls among the dozens of bad C++ books that are released every year.

Unlike many other programming languages, which are often picked up on the go from tutorials found on the Internet, few are able to quickly pick up C++ without studying a good C++ book. It is way too big and complex for doing this. In fact, it is so big and complex, that there are very many very bad C++ books out there. And we are not talking about bad style, but things like sporting glaringly obvious factual errors and promoting abysmally bad programming styles. And it's even worse with online tutorials. (There is a reason nobody bothered to setup a similar question for online tutorials.)

Please provide quality books and an approximate skill level — preferably after discussing your addition in the C++ chat room. (The regulars might mercilessly undo your work if they disagree with a recommendation.) Add a short blurb/description about each book that you have personally read/benefited from. Feel free to debate quality, headings, etc. Books that meet the criteria will be added to the list. Books that have reviews by the Association of C and C++ Users (ACCU) have links to the review.

To spell it out bluntly: There is no need to add a 75th answer to this question. If you feel like a book should be added, suggest it to the community and let's discuss it.


Note: FAQs and other resources can be found in the C++ tag info and under . There is also a similar post for C: The Definitive C Book Guide and List


Reference Style - All Levels

  1. The C++ Programming Language (Bjarne Stroustrup) (soon to be updated for C++11) The classic introduction to C++ by its creator. Written to parallel the classic K&R, this indeed reads very much alike it and covers just about everything from the core language to the standard library, to programming paradigms to the language's philosophy. (Thereby making the latest editions break the 1k page barrier.) [Review] The fourth edition (to be released in 2013) will cover C++11.

  2. C++ Standard Library Tutorial and Reference (Nicolai Josuttis) (updated for C++11) The introduction and reference for the C++ Standard Library. The second edition (released on April 9, 2012) covers C++11. [Review]

  3. The C++ IO Streams and Locales (Angelika Langer and Klaus Kreft) There's very little to say about this book except that, if you want to know anything about streams and locales, then this is the one place to find definitive answers. [Review]

C++ 11 References:

  1. The C++ Standard (INCITS/ISO/IEC 14882-2011) This, of course, is the final arbiter of all that is or isn't C++. Be aware, however, that it is intended purely as a reference for experienced users willing to devote considerable time and effort to its understanding. As usual, the first release was quite expensive ($300+ US), but it has now been released in electronic form for $30US -- probably the least expensive of the reference books listed here.

  2. Overview of the New C++ (C++11) By Scott Meyers, who's a highly respected author on C++. Even though the list of items is short, the quality is high.


Beginner

Introductory

If you are new to programming or if you have experience in other languages and are new to C++, these books are highly recommended.

  1. C++ Primer† (Stanley Lippman, Josée Lajoie, and Barbara E. Moo) (updated for C++11) Coming at 1k pages, this is a very thorough introduction into C++ that covers just about everything in the language in a very accessible format and in great detail. The fifth edition (released August 16, 2012) covers C++11. [Review]

  2. Accelerated C++ (Andrew Koenig and Barbara Moo) This basically covers the same ground as the C++ Primer, but does so on a fourth of its space. This is largely because it does not attempt to be an introduction to programming, but an introduction to C++ for people who've previously programmed in some other language. It has a steeper learning curve, but, for those who can cope with this, it is a very compact introduction into the language. (Historically, it broke new ground by being the first beginner's book using a modern approach at teaching the language.) [Review]

  3. Thinking in C++ (Bruce Eckel) Two volumes; second is more about standard library, but still very good

  4. Programming: Principles and Practice Using C++ (Bjarne Stroustrup) An introduction to programming using C++ by the creator of the language. A good read, that assumes no previous programming experience, but is not only for beginners.

† Not to be confused with C++ Primer Plus (Stephen Prata), with a significantly less favorable review.

Best practices

  1. Effective C++ (Scott Meyers) This was written with the aim of being the best second book C++ programmers should read, and it succeeded. Earlier editions were aimed at programmers coming from C, the third edition changes this and targets programmers coming from languages like Java. It presents ~50 easy-to-remember rules of thumb along with their rationale in a very accessible (and enjoyable) style. [Review]

  2. Effective STL (Scott Meyers) This aims to do the same to the part of the standard library coming from the STL what Effective C++ did to the language as a whole: It presents rules of thumb along with their rationale. [Review]


Intermediate

  1. More Effective C++ (Scott Meyers) Even more rules of thumb than Effective C++. Not as important as the ones in the first book, but still good to know.

  2. Exceptional C++ (Herb Sutter) Presented as a set of puzzles, this has one of the best and thorough discussions of the proper resource management and exception safety in C++ through Resource Acquisition is Initialization (RAII) in addition to in-depth coverage of a variety of other topics including the pimpl idiom, name lookup, good class design, and the C++ memory model. [Review]

  3. More Exceptional C++ (Herb Sutter) Covers additional exception safety topics not covered in Exceptional C++, in addition to discussion of effective object oriented programming in C++ and correct use of the STL. [Review]

  4. Exceptional C++ Style (Herb Sutter) Discusses generic programming, optimization, and resource management; this book also has an excellent exposition of how to write modular code in C++ by using nonmember functions and the single responsibility principle. [Review]

  5. C++ Coding Standards (Herb Sutter and Andrei Alexandrescu) "Coding standards" here doesn't mean "how many spaces should I indent my code?" This book contains 101 best practices, idioms, and common pitfalls that can help you to write correct, understandable, and efficient C++ code. [Review]

  6. C++ Templates: The Complete Guide (David Vandevoorde and Nicolai M. Josuttis) This is the book about C++ templates. It covers everything from the very basics to some of the most advanced template metaprogramming and explains every detail of how templates work (both conceptually and at how they are implemented) and discusses many common pitfalls. Has excellent summaries of the One Definition Rule (ODR) and overload resolution in the appendices. [Review]


Above Intermediate

  1. Modern C++ Design (Andrei Alexandrescu) A groundbreaking book on advanced generic programming techniques. Introduces policy-based design, type lists, and fundamental generic programming idioms then explains how many useful design patterns (including small object allocators, functors, factories, visitors, and multimethods) can be implemented efficiently, modularly, and cleanly using generic programming. [Review]

  2. C++ Template Metaprogramming (David Abrahams and Aleksey Gurtovoy)

  3. C++ Concurrency In Action (Anthony Williams) A book covering C++11 concurrency support including the thread library, the atomics library, the C++ memory model, locks and mutexes, as well as issues of designing and debugging multithreaded applications.

  4. Advanced C++ Metaprogramming (Davide Di Gennaro) A pre-C++11 manual of TMP techniques, focused more on practice than theory. There are a ton of snippets in this book, some of which are made obsolete by typetraits, but the techniques, are nonetheless, useful to know. If you can put up with the quirky formatting/editing, it is easier to read than Alexandrescu, and arguably, more rewarding. For more experienced developers, there is a good chance that you may pick up something about a dark corner of C++ (a quirk) that usually only comes about through extensive experience.


Classics / Older

Note: Some information contained within these books may not be up to date or no longer considered best practice.

  1. The Design and Evolution of C++ (Bjarne Stroustrup) If you want to know why the language is the way it is, this book is where you find answers. This covers everything before the standardization of C++.

  2. Ruminations on C++ - (Andrew Koenig and Barbara Moo) [Review]

  3. Advanced C++ Programming Styles and Idioms (James Coplien) A predecessor of the pattern movement, it describes many C++-specific "idioms". It's certainly a very good book and still worth a read if you can spare the time, but quite old and not up-to-date with current C++.

  4. Large Scale C++ Software Design (John Lakos) Lakos explains techniques to manage very big C++ software projects. Certainly a good read, if it only was up to date. It was written long before C++98, and misses on many features (e.g. namespaces) important for large scale projects. If you need to work in a big C++ software project, you might want to read it, although you need to take more than a grain of salt with it. There's been the rumor that Lakos is writing an up-to-date edition of the book for years.

  5. Inside the C++ Object Model (Stanley Lippman) If you want to know how virtual member functions are commonly implemented and how base objects are commonly laid out in memory in a multi-inheritance scenario, and how all this affects performance, this is where you will find thorough discussions of such topics.

This question has historical significance, but is not a good example of an appropriate question. Read and learn from this post, but please do not use it as evidence that you can ask similar questions.

See the FAQ for more info.

Answered By: Johannes Schaub - litb ( 379)

About C++ Templates The Complete Guide

I can only say good things about it. Written by two top experts. And you really notice that. The examples are well written, explained and placed.

They start by teaching you the basics on a few pages. Then they talk about all the pitfalls and hidden danger there is in template programming and the cool stuff that can be done with them. At the end, they explain in detail the overload resolution and the one definition rule in Appendix A and B.

Strongly recommended :)

561
Ashwin

What's the most elegant way to split a string in C++? The string can be assumed to be composed of words separated by whitespace.

(Note that I'm not interested in C string functions or that kind of character manipulation/access. Also, please give precedence to elegance over efficiency in your answer.)

The best solution I have right now is:

#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
    string s("Somewhere down the road");
    istringstream iss(s);

    do
    {
        string sub;
        iss >> sub;
        cout << "Substring: " << sub << endl;
    } while (iss);

}
Answered By: Evan Teran ( 442)

I use this to split string by a delim. The first puts the results in an pre-constructed vector, the second returns a new vector.

std::vector<std::string> &split(const std::string &s, char delim, std::vector<std::string> &elems) {
    std::stringstream ss(s);
    std::string item;
    while (std::getline(ss, item, delim)) {
        elems.push_back(item);
    }
    return elems;
}


std::vector<std::string> split(const std::string &s, char delim) {
    std::vector<std::string> elems;
    return split(s, delim, elems);
}

EDIT: Note that this solution does not skip empty tokens, so the following will find 4 items, one of which is empty:

std::vector<std::string> x = split("one:two::three", ':');
439
Graeme Perrow

I've been writing C and C++ code for almost twenty years, but there's one aspect of these languages that I've never really understood. I've obviously used regular casts (i.e.

MyClass *m = (MyClass *)ptr;

all over the place, but there seem to be two other types of casts, and I don't know the difference. What's the difference between the following lines of code?

MyClass *m = (MyClass *)ptr;
MyClass *m = static_cast<MyClass *>(ptr);
MyClass *m = dynamic_cast<MyClass *>(ptr);
Answered By: Johannes Schaub - litb ( 563)

static_cast

static_cast is used for cases where you basically want to reverse an implicit conversion, with a few restrictions and additions. static_cast performs no runtime checks. This should be used if you know that you refer to an object of a specific type, and thus a check would be unnecessary. Example:

void func(void *data) {
  // conversion from MyClass* -> void* is implicit
  MyClass *c = static_cast<MyClass*>(data);
  ...
}

int main() {
  MyClass c;
  start_thread(&func, &c)  // func(&c) will be called
      .join();
}

In this example, you know that you passed a MyClass object, and thus there is no need for a runtime check to ensure this.

dynamic_cast

dynamic_cast is used for cases where you don't know what the dynamic type of the object is. You cannot use dynamic_cast if you downcast and the argument type is not polymorphic. An example

if(JumpStm *j = dynamic_cast<JumpStm*>(&stm)) {
  ...
} else if(ExprStm *e = dynamic_cast<ExprStm*>(&stm)) { 
  ...
}

dynamic_cast returns a null pointer if the object referred to doesn't contain the type casted to as a base class (when you cast to a reference, a bad_cast exception is thrown in that case).

The following code is not valid, because Base is not polymorphic (doesn't contain a virtual function):

struct Base { };
struct Derived : Base { };
int main() { 
  Derived d; Base *b = &d;
  dynamic_cast<Derived*>(b); // invalid
}

An "up-cast" is always valid with both static_cast and dynamic_cast, and also without any cast, as an "up-cast" is an implicit conversion.

Regular Cast

These casts are also called c-style cast. A c-style cast is basically identical to trying out a range of sequences of C++ casts, and taking the first c++ cast that works, without ever considering dynamic_cast. Needless to say that this is much more powerful as it combines all of const_cast, static_cast and reinterpret_cast, but it's also unsafe because it does not use dynamic_cast.

In addition, C-style casts not only allow you to do this, but also allow you to safely cast to a private base-class, while the "equivalent" static_cast sequence would give you a compile time error for that.

Some people prefer c-style casts because of their brevity. I use them for numeric casts only, and use the appropriate C++ casts when user defined types are involved, as they provide stricter checking.

413
e.James

I am reasonably proficient in C++, but I do not have a lot of experience using the cast operators to convert pointers of one type to another. I am familiar with the risks and benefits of pointer casting, as well as the evils of using C-style casts. What I am looking for is a primer on the proper ways to use the various cast operators in C++.

What are the proper uses of static_cast, dynamic_cast and reinterpret_cast, and how does one decide which one to use in a specific case?

Answered By: coppro ( 647)

static_cast is the first cast you should attempt to use. It does things like implicit conversions between types (such as int to float, or pointer to void*), and it can also call explicit conversion functions (or implicit ones). In many cases, explicitly stating static_cast isn't necessary, but it's important to note that the T(something) syntax is equivalent to (T)something and should be avoided (more on that later). A T(something, something_else) is safe, however, and guaranteed to call the constructor.

static_cast can also cast through inheritance hierarchies. It is unnecessary when casting upwards (towards a base class), but when casting downwards it can be used as long as it doesn't cast through virtual inheritance. It does not do checking, however, and it is undefined behavior to static_cast down a hierarchy to a type that isn't actually the type of the object.


const_cast can be used to remove or add const to a variable; no other C++ cast is capable of removing it (not even reinterpret_cast). It is important to note that using it is only undefined if the original variable is const; if you use it to take the const off a reference to something that wasn't declared with const, it is safe. This can be useful when overloading member functions based on const, for instance. It can also be used to add const to an object, such as to call a member function overload.

const_cast also works similarly on volatile, though that's less common.


dynamic_cast is almost exclusively used for handling polymorphism. You can cast a pointer or reference to any polymorphic type to any other class type (a polymorphic type has at least one virtual function, declared or inherited). You don't have to use it to cast downwards, you can cast sideways or even up another chain. The dynamic_cast will seek out the desired object and return it if possible. If it can't, it will return NULL in the case of a pointer, or throw std::bad_cast in the case of a reference.

dynamic_cast has some limitations, though. It doesn't work if there are multiple objects of the same type in the inheritance hierarchy (the so-called 'dreaded diamond') and you aren't using virtual inheritance. It also can only go through public inheritance - it will always fail to travel through protected or private inheritance. This is rarely an issue, however, as such forms of inheritance are rare.


reinterpret_cast is the most dangerous cast, and should be used very sparingly. It turns one type directly into another - such as casting the value from one pointer to another, or storing a pointer in an int, or all sorts of other nasty things. Largely, the only guarantee you get with reinterpret_cast is that if you cast the result back to the original type, you will get the exact same value. There are a number of conversions that reinterpret_cast cannot do, too. It's used primarily for particularly weird conversions and bit manipulations, like turning a raw data stream into actual data, or storing data in the low bits of an aligned pointer. Simply put, it is int32_t herp = 1337; float* derp = (float*)&herp; float magic = *derp; This is essentially how the fast inverse square root works.


C casts are casts using (type)object or type(object). A C-style cast is defined as the first of the following which succeeds:

  • const_cast
  • static_cast
  • static_cast, then const_cast
  • reinterpret_cast
  • reinterpret_cast, then const_cast

It can therefore be used as a replacement for other casts in some instances, but can be extremely dangerous because of the ability to devolve into a reinterpret_cast, and the latter should be preferred when explicit casting is needed, unless you are sure static_cast will succeed or reinterpret_cast will fail. Even then, consider the longer, more explicit option.

C-style casts also ignore access control when performing a static_cast, which means that they have the ability to perform an operation that no other cast can. This is mostly a kludge, though, and in my mind is just another reason to avoid C-style casts.

What are the basic rules and idioms for operator overloading in C++?

Note: The answers were given in a specific order, but since many users sort answers according to votes, rather than the time they were give, here's an index of the answers in the order in which they make most sense:

(Note: This is meant to be an entry to Stack Overflow's C++ FAQ. If you want to critique the idea of providing an FAQ in this form, then the posting on meta that started all this would be the place to do that. Answers to that question are monitored in the C++ chatroom, where the FAQ idea started out in the first place, so your answer is very likely to get read by those who came up with the idea.)

Answered By: sbi ( 142)

The Three Basic Rules of Operator Overloading in C++

When it comes to operator overloading in C++, there are three basic rules you should follow. As with all such rules, there are indeed exceptions. Sometimes people have deviated from them and the outcome was not bad code, but such positive deviations are few and far between. At the very least, 99 out of 100 such deviations I have seen were unjustified. However, it might just as well have been 999 out of 1000. So you’d better stick to the following rules.

  1. Whenever the meaning of an operator is not obviously clear and undisputed, it should not be overloaded. Instead, provide a function with a well-chosen name.
    Basically, the first and foremost rule for overloading operators, at its very heart, says: Don’t do it. That might seem strange, because there is a lot to be known about operator overloading and so a lot of articles, book chapters, and other texts deal with all this. But despite this seemingly obvious evidence, there are only a surprisingly few cases where operator overloading is appropriate. The reason is that actually it is hard to understand the semantics behind the application of an operator unless the use of the operator in the application domain is well known and undisputed. Contrary to popular believe, this is hardly ever the case.

  2. Always stick to the operator’s well-known semantics.
    C++ poses no limitations on the semantics of overloaded operators. Your compiler will happily accept code that implements the binary + operator to subtract from its right operand. However, the users of such an operator would never suspect the expression a + b to subtract a from b. Of course, this supposes that the semantics of the operator in the application domain is undisputed.

  3. Always provide all out of a set of related operations.
    Operators are related to each other and to other operations. If your type supports a + b, users will expect to be able to call a += b, too. If it supports prefix increment ++a, they will expect a++ to work as well. If they can check whether a < b, they will most certainly expect to also to be able to check whether a > b. If they can copy-construct your type, they expect assignment to work as well.


Continue to The Decision between Member and Non-member.

Someone posted in a comment to another question about the meaning of the explicit keyword in C++. So, what does it mean?

Answered By: Skizz ( 452)

In C++, the compiler is allowed to make one implict conversion to resolve the parameters to a function. What this means is that the compiler can use single parameter constructors to convert from one type to another in order to get the right type for a parameter. Here's an example class with a constructor that can be used for implicit conversions:

class Foo
{
public:
  // single parameter constructor, can be used as an implicit conversion
  Foo (int foo) : m_foo (foo) 
  {
  }

  int GetFoo () { return m_foo; }

private:
  int m_foo;
};

Here's a simple function that takes a Foo object:

void DoBar (Foo foo)
{
  int i = foo.GetFoo ();
}

and here's where the DoBar function is called.

int main ()
{
  DoBar (42);
}

The parameter is not a Foo object. It is an int, though; and there exists a constructor for Foo that takes an int so that constructor can be used to convert the parameter to the correct type.

The compiler is allowed to do this once for each parameter.

Prefixing the explicit keyword to the constructor prevents the compiler from using that constructor for implicit conversions. Adding it to the above class will create a compiler error at the function call DoBar (42).

The reason you might want to do this is to avoid accidental construction that can hide bugs. Contrived example:

  • You have a MyString(int size) class with a constructor that constructs a string of the given size. You have a function print(MyString &), and you call it with print(3). You expect it to print "3", but it prints an empty string of length 3 instead.
358
Prakash

I know references are syntactic sugar, so easier code to read and write :)

But what are the differences?

Summary from answers and links below:

  1. A pointer can be re-assigned any number of times while a reference can not be reassigned after initialization.
  2. A pointer can point to NULL while reference can never point to NULL
  3. You can't take the address of a reference like you can with pointers
  4. There's no "reference arithmetics" (but you can take the address of an object pointed by a reference and do pointer arithmetics on it as in &obj + 5).

To clarify a misconception:

The C++ standard is very careful to avoid dictating how a compiler must implement references, but every C++ compiler implements references as pointers. That is, a declaration such as:

int &ri = i;

allocates the same amount of storage as a pointer, and places the address of i into that storage.

So pointer and reference occupies same amount of memory

As a general rule,

  • Use references in function parameters and return types to define attractive interfaces.
  • Use pointers to implement algorithms and data structures.

Interesting read:

Answered By: Brian R. Bondy ( 218)

1) A pointer can be re-assigned:

int x = 5;
int y = 6;
int *p;
p =  &x;
p = &y;
*p = 10;
assert(x == 5);
assert(y == 10);

A reference cannot, and must be assigned at initialization:

int x = 5;
int y = 6;
int &r = x;

2) A pointer has its own memory address and size on the stack (4 bytes on x86), whereas a reference shares the same memory address but also takes up some space on the stack. Since a reference has the same address as the original variable itself, it is safe to think of a reference as another name for the same variable. Note: What a pointer points to can be on the stack or heap. Ditto a reference. My claim in this statement is not that a pointer must point to the stack. A pointer is just a variable that holds a memory address. This variable is on the stack. Since a reference has its own space on the stack, and since the address is the same as the variable it references. More on stack vs heap. This implies that there is a real address of a reference that the compiler will not tell you.

int x = 0;
int &r = x;
int *p = &x;
int *p2 = &r;
assert(p == p2);

3) You can have pointers to pointers to pointers offering extra levels of indirection. Whereas references only offer one level of indirection.

int x = 0;
int y = 0;
int *p = &x;
int *q = &y;
int **pp = &p;
pp = &q;//*pp = q
**pp = 4;
assert(y == 4);
assert(x == 0);

4) Pointer can be assigned NULL directly, whereas reference cannot. If you try hard enough, and you know how, you can make the address of a reference NULL. Likewise, if you try hard enough you can have a reference to a pointer, and then that reference can contain NULL.

int *p = NULL;
int &r = NULL; <--- compiling error

5) Pointers can iterate over an array, you can use ++ to go to the next item that a pointer is pointing to, and + 4 to go to the 5th element. This is no matter what size the object is that the pointer points to.

6) A pointer needs to be dereferenced with * to access the memory location it points to, whereas a reference can be used directly. A pointer to a class/struct uses -> to access it's members whereas a reference uses a ..

7) A pointer is a variable that holds a memory address. Regardless of how a reference is implemented, a reference has the same memory address as the item it references.

8) References cannot be stuffed into an array, whereas pointers can be (Mentioned by user @litb)

9) Const references can be bound to temporaries. Pointers cannot (not without some indirection):

const int &x = int(12); //legal C++
int *y = &int(12); //illegal to dereference a temporary.

This makes const& safer for use in argument lists and so forth.

What does copying an object mean? What are the copy constructor and the copy assignment operator? When do I need to declare them myself? How can I prevent my objects from being copied?

Answered By: FredOverflow ( 352)

Introduction

C++ treats variables of user-defined types with value semantics. This means that objects are implicitly copied in various contexts, and we should understand what "copying an object" actually means.

Let us consider a simple example:

class person
{
    std::string name;
    int age;

public:

    person(const std::string& name, int age) : name(name), age(age)
    {
    }
};

int main()
{
    person a("Bjarne Stroustrup", 60);
    person b(a);   // What happens here?
    b = a;         // And here?
}

(If you are puzzled by the name(name), age(age) part, this is called a member initializer list.)

Special member functions

What does it mean to copy a person object? The main function shows two distinct copying scenarios. The initialization person b(a); is performed by the copy constructor. Its job is to construct a fresh object based on the state of an existing object. The assignment b = a is performed by the copy assignment operator. Its job is generally a little more complicated, because the target object is already in some valid state that needs to be dealt with.

Since we declared neither the copy constructor nor the assignment operator (nor the destructor) ourselves, these are implicitly defined for us. Quote from the standard:

The [...] copy constructor and copy assignment operator, [...] and destructor are special member functions. [ Note: The implementation will implicitly declare these member functions for some class types when the program does not explicitly declare them. The implementation will implicitly define them if they are used. [...] end note ] [n3126.pdf section 12 §1]

By default, copying an object means copying its members:

The implicitly-defined copy constructor for a non-union class X performs a memberwise copy of its subobjects. [n3126.pdf section 12.8 §16]

The implicitly-defined copy assignment operator for a non-union class X performs memberwise copy assignment of its subobjects. [n3126.pdf section 12.8 §30]

Implicit definitions

The implicitly-defined special member functions for person look like this:

    // 1. copy constructor
    person(const person& that) : name(that.name), age(that.age)
    {
    }

    // 2. copy assignment operator
    person& operator=(const person& that)
    {
        name = that.name;
        age = that.age;
        return *this;
    }

    // 3. destructor
    ~person()
    {
    }

Memberwise copying is exactly what we want in this case: name and age are copied, so we get a self-contained, independent person object. The implicitly-defined destructor is always empty. This is also fine in this case since we did not acquire any resources in the constructor. The members' destructors are implicitly called after the person destructor is finished:

After executing the body of the destructor and destroying any automatic objects allocated within the body, a destructor for class X calls the destructors for X's direct [...] members [n3126.pdf 12.4 §6]

Managing resources

So when should we declare those special member functions explicitly? When our class manages a resource, that is, when an object of the class is responsible for that resource. That usually means the resource is acquired in the constructor (or passed into the constructor) and released in the destructor.

Let us go back in time to pre-standard C++. There was no such thing as std::string, and programmers were in love with pointers. The person class might have looked like this:

class person
{
    char* name;
    int age;

public:

    // the constructor acquires a resource:
    // in this case, dynamic memory obtained via new[]
    person(const char* the_name, int the_age)
    {
        name = new char[strlen(the_name) + 1];
        strcpy(name, the_name);
        age = the_age;
    }

    // the destructor must release this resource via delete[]
    ~person()
    {
        delete[] name;
    }
};

Even today, people still write classes in this style and get into trouble: "I pushed a person into a vector and now I get crazy memory errors!" Remember that by default, copying an object means copying its members, but copying the name member merely copies a pointer, not the character array it points to! This has several unpleasant effects:

  1. Changes via a can be observed via b.
  2. Once b is destroyed, a.name is a dangling pointer.
  3. If a is destroyed, deleting the dangling pointer yields undefined behavior.
  4. Since the assignment does not take into account what name pointed to before the assignment, sooner or later you will get memory leaks all over the place.

Explicit definitions

Since memberwise copying does not have the desired effect, we must define the copy constructor and the copy assignment operator explicitly to make deep copies of the character array:

    // 1. copy constructor
    person(const person& that)
    {
        name = new char[strlen(that.name) + 1];
        strcpy(name, that.name);
        age = that.age;
    }

    // 2. copy assignment operator
    person& operator=(const person& that)
    {
        if (this != &that)
        {
            delete[] name;
            // This is a dangerous point in the flow of execution!
            // We have temporarily invalidated the class invariants,
            // and the next statement might throw an exception,
            // leaving the object in an invalid state :(
            name = new char[strlen(that.name) + 1];
            strcpy(name, that.name);
            age = that.age;
        }
        return *this;
    }

Note the difference between initialization and assignment: we must tear down the old state before assigning to name to prevent memory leaks. Also, we have to protect against self-assignment of the form x = x. Without that check, delete[] name would delete the array containing the source string, because when you write x = x, both this->name and that.name contain the same pointer.

Exception safety

Unfortunately, this solution will fail if new char[...] throws an exception due to memory exhaustion. One possible solution is to introduce a local variable and reorder the statements:

    // 2. copy assignment operator
    person& operator=(const person& that)
    {
        char* local_name = new char[strlen(that.name) + 1];
        // If the above statement throws,
        // the object is still in the same state as before.
        // None of the following statements will throw an exception :)
        strcpy(local_name, that.name);
        delete[] name;
        name = local_name;
        age = that.age;
        return *this;
    }

This also takes care of self-assignment without an explicit check. An even more robust solution to this problem is the copy-and-swap idiom, but I will not go into the details of exception safety here. I only mentioned exceptions to make the following point: Writing classes that manage resources is hard.

Noncopyable resources

Some resources cannot or should not be copied, such as file handles or mutexes. In that case, simply declare the copy constructor and copy assignment operator as private without giving a definition:

private:

    person(const person& that);
    person& operator=(const person& that);

Alternatively, you can inherit from boost::noncopyable or declare them as deleted (C++0x):

    person(const person& that) = delete;
    person& operator=(const person& that) = delete;

The rule of three

Sometimes you need to implement a class that manages a resource. (Never manage multiple resources in a single class, this will only lead to pain.) In that case, remember the rule of three:

If you need to explicitly declare either the destructor, copy constructor or copy assignment operator yourself, you probably need to explicitly declare all three of them.

(Unfortunately, this "rule" is not enforced by the C++ standard or any compiler I am aware of.)

Advice

Most of the time, you do not need to manage a resource yourself, because an existing class such as std::string already does it for you. Just compare the simple code using a std::string member to the convoluted and error-prone alternative using a char* and you should be convinced. As long as you stay away from raw pointer members, the rule of three is unlikely to concern your own code.

What is this idiom and when should it be used? Which problems does it solve? Will the idiom change when C++0x is used?

Although it's been mentioned in many places, we didn't have any singular "what is it" question and answer, so here it is. Here is a partial list of places where it was previously mentioned:

Answered By: GManNickG ( 418)

Overview

Why do we need it?

Any class that manages a resource (a wrapper, like a smart pointer) needs to implement The Big Three. While the goals and implementation of the copy-constructor and destructor are straightforward, the copy-assignment operator is arguably the most nuanced and difficult. How should it be done? What pitfalls need to be avoided?

The copy-and-swap idiom is the solution, and elegantly assists the assignment operator in achieving two things: avoiding code duplication, and providing a strong exception guarantee.

How does it work?

Conceptually, it works by using the copy-constructor's functionality to create a local copy of the data, then takes the copied data with a swap function, swapping the old data with the new data. The temporary copy then destructs, taking the old data with it. We are left with a copy of the new data.

In order to use the copy-and-swap idiom, we need three things: a working copy-constructor, a working destructor (both are the basis of any wrapper, so should be complete anyway), and a swap function.

A swap function is a non-throwing function that swaps two objects of a class, member for member. We might be tempted to use std::swap instead of providing our own, but this would be impossible; std::swap uses the copy-constructor and copy-assignment operator within its implementation, and we'd ultimately be trying to define the assignment operator in terms of itself!

(Not only that, but unqualified calls to swap will use our custom swap operator, skipping over the unnecessary construction and destruction of our class that std::swap would entail.)


An in-depth explanation

The goal

Let's consider a concrete case. We want to manage, in an otherwise useless class, a dynamic array. We start with a working constructor, copy-constructor, and destructor:

#include <algorithm> // std::copy
#include <cstddef> // std::size_t

class dumb_array
{
public:
    // (default) constructor
    dumb_array(std::size_t size = 0) :
    mSize(size),
    mArray(mSize ? new int[mSize]() : 0)
    {}

    // copy-constructor
    dumb_array(const dumb_array& other) :
    mSize(other.mSize),
    mArray(mSize ? new int[mSize] : 0),
    {
        // note that this is non-throwing, because of the data
        // types being used; more attention to detail with regards
        // to exceptions must be given in a more general case, however
        std::copy(other.mArray, other.mArray + mSize, mArray);
    }

    // destructor
    ~dumb_array()
    {
        delete [] mArray;
    }

private:
    std::size_t mSize;
    int* mArray;
};

This class almost manages the array successfully, but it needs operator= to work correctly.

A failed solution

Here's how a naive implementation might look:

// the hard part
dumb_array& operator=(const dumb_array& other)
{
    if (this != &other) // (1)
    {
        // get rid of the old data...
        delete [] mArray; // (2)
        mArray = 0; // (2) *(see footnote for rationale)

        // ...and put in the new
        mSize = other.mSize; // (3)
        mArray = mSize ? new int[mSize] : 0; // (3)
        std::copy(other.mArray, other.mArray + mSize, mArray); // (3)
    }

    return *this;
} 

And we say we're finished; this now manages an array, without leaks. However, it suffers from three problems, marked sequentially in the code as (n).

The first is the self-assignment test. This check serves two purposes: it's an easy way to prevent us from running needless code on self-assignment, and it protects us from subtle bugs (such as deleting the array only to try and copy it). But in all other cases it merely serves to slow the program down, and act as noise in the code; self-assignment rarely occurs, so most of the time this check is a waste. It would be better if the operator could work properly without it.

The second is that it only provides a basic exception guarantee. If new int[mSize] fails, *this will have been modified. (Namely, the size is wrong and the data is gone!) For a strong exception guarantee, it would need to be something akin to:

dumb_array& operator=(const dumb_array& other)
{
    if (this != &pOther) // (1)
    {
        // get the new data ready before we replace the old
        std::size_t newSize = other.mSize;
        int* newArray = newSize ? new int[newSize]() : 0; // (3)
        std::copy(other.mArray, other.mArray + newSize, newArray); // (3)

        // replace the old data (all are non-throwing)
        delete [] mArray;
        mSize = newSize;
        mArray = newArray;
    }

    return *this;
} 

The code has expanded! Which leads us to the third problem: code duplication. Our assignment operator effectively duplicates all the code we've already written elsewhere, and that's a terrible thing.

In our case, the core of it is only two lines (the allocation and the copy), but with more complex resources this code bloat can be quite a hassle. We should strive to never repeat ourselves.

(One might wonder: if this much code is needed to manage one resource correctly, what if my class manages more than one? While is may seem to be a valid concern, and indeed it requires non-trivial try/catch clauses, this is a non-issue. That's because a class should manage one resource only!)

A successful solution

As mentioned, the copy-and-swap idiom will fix all these issues. But right now, we have all the requirements except one: a swap function. While The Rule of Three successfully entails the existence of our copy-constructor, assignment operator, and destructor, it should really be called "The Big Three and A Half": any time your class manages a resource it also makes sense to provide a swap function.

We need to add swap functionality to our class, and we do that as follows†:

class dumb_array
{
public:
    // ...

    friend void swap(dumb_array& first, dumb_array& second) // nothrow
    {
        // enable ADL (not necessary in our case, but good practice)
        using std::swap; 

        // by swapping the members of two classes,
        // the two classes are effectively swapped
        swap(first.mSize, second.mSize); 
        swap(first.mArray, second.mArray);
    }

    // ...
};

Now not only can we swap our dumb_array's, but swaps in general can be more efficient; it merely swaps pointers and sizes, rather than allocating and copying entire arrays. Aside from this bonus in functionality and efficiency, we are now ready to implement the copy-and-swap idiom.

Without further ado, our assignment operator is:

dumb_array& operator=(dumb_array other) // (1)
{
    swap(*this, other); // (2)

    return *this;
} 

And that's it! With one fell swoop, all three problems are elegantly tackled at once.

Why does it work?

We first notice an important choice: the parameter argument is taken by-value. While one could just as easily do the following (and indeed, many naive implementations of the idiom do):

dumb_array& operator=(const dumb_array& other)
{
    dumb_array temp(other);
    swap(*this, temp);

    return *this;
}

We lose an important optimization opportunity. Not only that, but this choice is critical in C++11, which is discussed later. (On a general note, a remarkably useful guideline is as follows: if you're going to make a copy of something in a function, let the compiler do it in the parameter list.‡)

Either way, this method of obtaining our resource is the key to eliminating code duplication: we get to use the code from the copy-constructor to make the copy, and never need to repeat any bit of it. Now that the copy is made, we are ready to swap.

Observe that upon entering the function that all the new data is already allocated, copied, and ready to be used. This is what gives us a strong exception guarantee for free: we won't even enter the function if construction of the copy fails, and it's therefore not possible to alter the state of *this. (What we did manually before for a strong exception guarantee, the compiler is doing for us now; how kind.)

At this point we are home-free, because swap is non-throwing. We swap our current data with the copied data, safely altering our state, and the old data gets put into the temporary. The old data is then released when the function returns. (Where upon the parameter's scope ends and its destructor is called.)

Because the idiom repeats no code, we cannot introduce bugs within the operator. Note that this means we are rid of the need for a self-assignment check, allowing a single uniform implementation of operator=. (Additionally, we no longer have a performance penalty on non-self-assignments.)

And that is the copy-and-swap idiom.

What about C++11?

The next version of C++, C++11, makes one very important change to how we manage resources: the Rule of Three is now The Rule of Four (and a half). Why? Because not only do we need to be able to copy-construct our resource, we need to move-construct it as well.

Luckily for us, this is easy:

class dumb_array
{
public:
    // ...

    // move constructor
    dumb_array(dumb_array&& other) :
    dumb_array() // initialize via default constructor, C++11 only
    {
        swap(*this, other);
    }

    // ...
};

What's going on here? Recall the goal of move-construction: to take the resources from another instance of the class, leaving it in a state guaranteed to be assignable and destructible.

So what we've done is simple: initialize via the default constructor (a C++11 feature), then swap with other; we know a default constructed instance of our class can safely be assigned and destruct, so we know other will be able to do the same, after swapping.

(Note that some compilers do not support constructor delegation; in this case, we have to manually default construct the class. This is an unfortunate but luckily trivial task.)

Why does that work?

That is the only change we need to make to our class, so why does it work? Remember the ever-important decision we made to make the parameter a value and not a reference:

dumb_array& operator=(dumb_array other); // (1)

Now, if other is being initialized with an rvalue, it will be move-constructed. Perfect. In the same way C++03 let us re-use our copy-constructor functionality by taking the argument by-value, C++11 will automatically pick the move-constructor when appropriate as well. (And, of course, as mentioned in previously linked article, the copying/moving of the value may simply elided altogether.)

And so concludes the copy-and-swap idiom.


Footnotes

*Why do we set mArray to null? Because if any further code in the operator throws, the destructor of dumb_array might be called; and if that happens without setting it to null, we attempt to delete memory that's already been deleted! We avoid this by setting it to null, as deleting null is a no-operation.

†There are other claims that we should specialize std::swap for our type, provide an in-class swap along-side a free-function swap, etc. But this is all unnecessary: any proper use of swap will be through an unqualified call, and our function will be found through ADL. One function will do.

‡The reason is simple: once you have the resource to yourself, you may swap and/or move it (C++11) anywhere it needs to be. And by making the copy in the parameter list, you maximize optimization.

I stumbled upon the Stack Overflow question Memory leak with std::string when using std::list<std::string> and one of the comments says this:

Stop using new so much. I can't see any reason you used new anywhere you did. You can create objects by value in C++ and it's one of the huge advantages to using the language. You do not have to allocate everything on the stack. Stop thinking like a Java programmer.

I'm not really sure what he means by that. Could anyone clarify why objects should be created by value in C++ as often as possible, and what difference it makes internally? (Or if I misinterpreted the answer, feel free to clarify what was meant.)

Answered By: Andr&#233; Caron ( 386)

There are 2 widely used memory allocation techniques: automatic allocation and dynamic allocation. Commonly, there is a corresponding region of memory for each: the stack and the heap.

Stack

The stack always allocates memory in a sequential fashion. It can do so because it requires you to release the memory in the reverse order (First-In, Last-Out: FILO). This is the memory allocation technique for local variables in many programming languages. It is very, very fast because it requires minimal book keeping and the next address to allocate is implicit.

In C++, this is called automatic storage because the storage is claimed automatically at the end of scope. As soon as execution of current code block (delimited using {}) is completed, memory for all variables in that block is automatically collected. This is also the moment where destructors are invoked to clean up resources.

Heap

The heap allows for a more flexible memory allocation mode. Bookkeeping is more complex and allocation is slower. Because there is no implicit release point, you must release the memory manually, using delete or delete[] (free in C). However, the absence of an implicit release point is the key to the heap's flexibility.

Reasons to use dynamic allocation

Even if using the heap is slower and potentially leads to memory leaks or memory fragmentation, there are perfectly good use cases for dynamic allocation, as it's less limited.

Two key reasons to use dynamic allocation:

  • You don't know how much memory you need at compile-time. For instance, when reading a text file into a string, you usually don't know what size the file has, so you can't decide how much memory to allocate until you run the program.

  • You want to allocate memory which will persist after leaving the current block. For instance, you may want to write a function string readfile(string path) that returns the contents of a file. In this case, even if the stack could hold the entire file contents, you could not return from a function and keep the allocated memory block.

Why dynamic allocation is often unnecessary.

In C++, there's a neat construct called a destructor. This mechanism allows you to manage resources by aligning the lifetime of the resource with the lifetime of a variable. It is commonly used to "wrap" resources into another object. std::string is a perfect example. This snippet:

int main ( int argc, char* argv[] )
{
    std::string program(argv[0]);
}

actually allocates a variable amount of memory. The std::string object allocates memory using the heap and releases it in its destructor. In this case, you did not need to manually manage any resources and still get the benefits of the dynamic memory allocation.

In particular, it implies that in this snippet:

int main ( int argc, char* argv[] )
{
    std::string * program = new std::string(argv[0]);
    delete program;
}

there is unneeded dynamic memory allocation. The program requires more typing (!) and introduces the risk of forgetting to deallocate the memory. It does this with no apparent benefit.

Why you should use automatic storage as often as possible

Basically, the last paragraph sums it up. Using automatic storage as often as possible makes your programs:

  • faster to type;
  • faster when run;
  • less prone to memory/resource leaks.

Bonus points

In the referenced question, there are additional concerns. In particular, the following class:

class Line {
public:
    Line();
    ~Line();
    std::string* mString;
};

Line::Line() {
    mString = new std::string("foo_bar");
}

Line::~Line() {
   //mString->clear(); // should not be neccessary
    delete mString;
}

Is actually a lot more risky to use than the following one:

class Line {
public:
    Line();
    std::string mString;
};

Line::Line() {
    mString = "foo_bar";
    // note: there is a cleaner way to write this.
}

The reason is that std::string properly defines a copy constructor. Consider the following program:

int main ()
{
    Line l1;
    Line l2 = l1;
}

Using the original version, this program will likely crash, as it uses delete on the same string twice. Using the modified version, each Line instance will own its own string instance, each with its own memory and both will be released at the end of the program.

Other notes

Extensive use of RAII is considered a best practice in C++ because of all the reasons above. However, there is an additional benefit which is not immediately obvious. Basically, it's better than the sum of its parts. The whole mechanism composes. It scales.

If you use the Line class as a building block:

 class Table
 {
      Line borders[4];
 };

Then

 int main ()
 {
     Table table;
 }

allocates 4 std::string instances, 4 Line instances, 1 Table instance and all the strings contents and everything is freed automagically.